Ranked values of the abundance discrepancy O2+ abundance discrepancy 1000 100 10 1 Hii regions Planetary nebulae Planetary nebulae with close binary central stars median adf: 2.2 80th percentile: 5

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This is a list of 212 literature values of the abundance discrepancy factor for O2+, which is hopefully complete. One value, for the HII region LMC N11B, is omitted as it was later found to be in error. In other cases where the same object has been analysed more than once, all measurements are shown. Click on a heading to sort the table, and an attribute to highlight the relevant nebulae. Objects are identified on the figure when you hover the mouse over their bar. The data on fluxes, velocities, morphologies, sizes and distances were collected with the help of several other attendees at the WorkPLANS meeting in Leiden in February 2016. The HASH PNe database has also been of great use in compiling and maintaining this page.

ADF:
Object type:
Morphology:

ObjectDiscrepancyTypeReferencePNGRADecDiameter (arcseconds)MorphologylogF(Hβ)I(4363)I(5007)Vexp ([OIII])Vexp ([NII])Distance (kpc)
M 2-390.4PN2007MNRAS.381..669W008.1-04.718:22:01.10-24:10:40.193.2E-12.13135379.02 +- 2.79
SDSS J1253-03120.79HII2014MNRAS.443..624E12:53:06.0-03:12:59.0
NGC 54611.23HII2009ApJ...700..654E14:03:40.9654:19:02.40
NGC 70271.3PN2005A%26A...442..249Z084.9-03.421:07:01.7042:14:09.4915.6x12.0B-10.1221.523.50.94 +- 0.27
Orion1.3HII1998MNRAS.295..401E05:35:17.30-05:23:28
NGC 54551.35HII2020MNRAS.491.2137E14:03:01.1754:14:29.40
30 Dor1.38HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T05:38:42.40-69:06:03.36
NGC 65721.38PN2005ApJS..157..371R034.6+11.818:12:06.4006:51:12.1714B-9.82939916161.46 +- 0.42
M 1-201.4PN2007MNRAS.381..669W006.1+08.317:28:57.60-19:15:53.822.5x2.3E-11.9353267.88 +- 2.31
M 2-231.4PN2007MNRAS.381..669W002.2-02.718:01:42.60-28:25:43.908.5E-11.57810785.92 +- 1.92
NGC 63691.4PN2013A%26A...558A.122G002.4+05.817:29:20.40-23:45:34.2433.0x32.7E-11.328148441.60.91 +- 0.28
Orion1.4HII2007ApJ...670..457G05:35:17.30-05:23:28
Hen 2-961.41PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G309.0+00.813:42:36.1-61:22:29.172.8x2.8B
NGC 67901.44PN2005ApJS..157..371R037.8-06.319:22:57.0001:30:46.444.4x3.4B-10.9131152154.20 +- 1.22
NGC 2867-11.49PN2009A%26A...496..139G278.1-05.909:21:25.38-58:18:40.9
IC 48461.5PN2007MNRAS.381..669W027.6-09.619:16:28.20-09:02:36.563B-11.34636913.17.13 +- 2.01
NGC 5253 B1.5HII2007ApJ...656..168L13:39:56.00-31:38:25.80
NGC 65721.5PN2004MNRAS.353..953T034.6+11.818:12:06.4006:51:12.1714B-9.82939916161.46 +- 0.42
Hen 3-13571.51PN2017ApJ...838...71O331.3-12.117:16:21.08-59:29:23.34.0x3.3B
IC 21111.51HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T04:51:52.1-69:23:32.0
NGC 68911.52PN2005MNRAS.362..424W054.1-12.120:15:08.8012:42:15.6213.5x12.7E-10.651572.88 +- 0.82
NGC 54471.54HII2009ApJ...700..654E14:02:28.754:16:25
NGC 65721.54PN2005ApJS..157..371R034.6+11.818:12:06.4006:51:12.1714B-9.82939916161.46 +- 0.42
NGC 54711.55HII2020MNRAS.491.2137E14:04:28.6354:23:52.84
IC 1321.58HII2016MNRAS.458.1866T01:33:15.830:56:45
LMC N11B1.58HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T04:56:46.9-66:24:37.9
NGC 17141.58HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T04:52:08.8-66:55:24.0
NGC 53151.58PN2017MNRAS.471.1341M309.1-04.313:53:57.00-66:30:50.9410.7x9.2B-10.4238404037.52.03 +- 0.59
Tol 1924-4161.58HII2014MNRAS.443..624E19:27:58.0-41:34:27
30 Dor1.6HII2003ApJ...584..735P05:38:42.40-69:06:03.36
Cn 1-51.6PN2007MNRAS.381..669W002.2-09.418:29:11.70-31:29:59.217.4x7.4B-11.213268184.99 +- 1.42
Hu 1-21.6PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L086.5-08.821:33:08.3039:38:09.568.3B5.06 +- 1.44
M 1-611.6PN2013A%26A...558A.122G019.4-05.318:45:55.10-14:27:37.941.8R-11.4349146.61 +- 2.02
NGC 51891.6PNb2013A%26A...558A.122G307.2-03.413:33:33.00-65:58:26.69163.4x108.2B-10.521314283624.50.78 +- 0.22
NGC 54711.6HII2002ApJ...581..241E14:04:28.6354:23:52.84
NGC 6041.6HII2002ApJ...581..241E01:34:32.1030:47:01
NGC 65721.6PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L034.6+11.818:12:06.4006:51:12.1714B-9.82939916161.46 +- 0.42
Hen 2-1581.61PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G327.8-06.116:23:30.6-58:19:22.662.0x2.0E
Lin 49*1.62PN2016MNRAS.462...12O00:43:53.887-72:55:14.79
POX 41.62HII2014MNRAS.443..624E11:51:11.7-20:35:58
Wray 16-4231.64PN2015MNRAS.452.4070O006.8-19.819:22:10.63-31:30:38.71.4x1.4E
NGC 23921.65PNb2012ApJ...754...28Z197.8+17.307:29:10.820:54:42.4446x44E-10.3912591.70 +- 0.50
Hen 2-1181.7PN2007MNRAS.381..669W327.5+13.315:06:13.70-42:59:56.471.3S-11.711119015.19 +- 4.43
NGC 65651.7PN2007MNRAS.381..669W003.5-04.618:11:52.50-28:10:42.2810.8x10.5E-11.227134014.5223.18 +- 0.92
NGC 67901.7PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L037.8-06.319:22:57.0001:30:46.444.4x3.4B-10.9131152154.20 +- 1.22
Pe 1-11.7PN2013A%26A...558A.122G285.4+01.510:38:27.60-56:47:06.403B5.39 +- 1.82
NGC 6822 V1.73HII2014MNRAS.443..624E19:44:52.4-14:43:13
M 31-K 9321.74HII2009ApJ...700..654E00:46:34.042:11:51
H 4-11.75PN2013ApJ...778..146O049.3+88.112:59:27.7727:38:10.52.7x2.7E
IC 47761.75PNb2017MNRAS.471.3529S002.0-13.418:45:50.72-33:20:34.217.0x8.0B4.44 +-1.27
NGC 2867-11.77PN2009A%26A...496..139G278.1-05.909:21:25.38-58:18:40.9
NGC 300 R201.77HII2016MNRAS.458.1866T00:54:51.69-37:39:38.7
M 1-251.8PN2013A%26A...558A.122G004.9+04.917:38:30.30-22:08:38.873.9E-11.925185.60 +- 1.90
MyCn 181.8PNb2004MNRAS.353..953T307.5-04.913:39:35.10-67:22:51.4617.3x9.8B2.75 +- 0.78
NGC 35761.8HII2003MNRAS.338..687T11:11:49.80-61:18:14
NGC 35761.8HII2007ApJ...670..457G11:11:49.80-61:18:14
NGC 39181.8PN2004MNRAS.353..953T294.6+04.711:50:17.70-57:10:56.8918.7x17.1B-10.0415166724.226.51.55 +- 0.44
NGC 5253 A1.8HII2007ApJ...656..168L13:39:55.90-31:38:24
NGC 5881.81HII2016MNRAS.458.1866T01:32:45.230:38:54
NGC 6041.81HII2009ApJ...700..654E01:34:32.1030:47:01
NGC 39181.85PN2015MNRAS.452.2606G294.6+04.711:50:17.70-57:10:56.8918.7x17.1B-10.0415166724.226.51.55 +- 0.44
Cn 1-51.9PN2013A%26A...558A.122G002.2-09.418:29:11.70-31:29:59.217.4x7.4B-11.213268184.99 +- 1.42
Hen 2-861.9PN2013A%26A...558A.122G300.7-02.012:30:30.40-64:52:05.593.2B-12.2610704.62 +- 1.53
IC 44061.9PN2004MNRAS.353..953T319.6+15.714:22:26.20-44:09:02.4137.2B-10.74712676141.81 +- 0.51
M 2-41.9PN2007MNRAS.381..669W349.8+04.417:01:06.20-34:49:38.572.4E-11.847927.67 +- 2.29
NGC 36031.9HII2007ApJ...670..457G11:15:24.00-01:01:15.00
NGC 5253 C1.9HII2007ApJ...656..168L 13:39:56.02-31:38:27.89
NGC 53071.9PN2003ApJ...595..247R312.3+10.513:51:03.30-51:12:20.6318.8x12.9B-11.1816137810.83.16 +- 0.90
NGC 54611.9HII2002ApJ...581..241E14:03:40.9654:19:02.40
NGC 66441.9PN2004MNRAS.353..953T008.3-07.318:32:34.60-25:07:44.004.4x4.3B-10.99124654.95 +- 1.45
NGC 67411.9PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L033.8-02.619:02:37.10-00:26:56.989.1x6.5E-11.321112742321.53.29 +- 1.02
NGC 6822 V1.9HII2005ApJ...634.1056P19:44:52.4-14:43:13
NGC 68261.9PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L083.5+12.719:44:48.2050:31:30.3225E1.40 +- 0.40
PC 141.9PN2013A%26A...558A.122G336.2-06.917:06:14.80-52:30:00.407.2x5.1B5.97 +- 1.80
S3111.9HII2007ApJ...670..457G07:52:18.50-26:25:41
NGC 23631.95HII2009ApJ...700..654E07:28:29.8369:11:32.80
NGC 4561.95HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T01:13:44.4-73:17:26.0
SMC N88A1.95HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T01:24:08.3-73:09:04.6
IC 4182PN2004ApJ...615..323S215.2-24.205:27:28.21-12:41:50.2814.0x11.0E-9.58
M 1-612PN2007MNRAS.381..669W019.4-05.318:45:55.10-14:27:37.941.8R-11.4349146.61 +- 2.02
M 172HII1999RMxAA..35...65E18:20:47.00-00:16:10.30
M 82HII1993ApJ...418..760P18:03:37.00-00:24:23.20
M 82HII2007ApJ...670..457G18:03:37.00-00:24:23.20
NGC 2403-VS 442HII2009ApJ...700..654E07:37:06.865:36:41
NGC 53152PN2004MNRAS.353..953T309.1-04.313:53:57.00-66:30:50.9410.7x9.2B-10.4238404037.52.03 +- 0.59
NGC 68072PN2005MNRAS.362..424W042.9-06.919:34:33.5005:41:02.582.0x1.9R-11.48242139.48 +- 2.70
NGC 76622PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L106.5-17.623:25:54.0042:32:05.0329.4E-9.9927.5291.36 +- 0.38
Vy 2-12PN2007MNRAS.381..669W007.0-06.818:27:59.60-26:06:48.284E6.68 +- 1.91
LMC N44C2.04HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T05:22:13.6-67:58:34.2
NGC 300 R232.04HII2016MNRAS.458.1866T00:55:03.56-37:42:48.5
NGC 6543S2.07PN2005ApJS..157..371R096.4+29.917:58:33.4066:37:58.8025.5B-9.6119.5201.15 +- 0.32
H 1-352.1PN2007MNRAS.381..669W355.7-03.517:49:13.90-34:22:52.973B-11.455825.39 +- 1.66
M 172.1HII2003MNRAS.338..687T18:20:47.00-00:16:10.30
M 172.1HII2007ApJ...670..457G18:20:47.00-00:16:10.30
M 2-422.1PN2007MNRAS.381..669W008.2-04.818:22:32.10-24:09:27.613.8B-12.124929
M 202.1HII2007ApJ...670..457G18:02:42.00-00:22:58.30
Me 2-22.1PN2005MNRAS.362..424W100.0-08.722:31:43.7047:48:03.961.9B8.75 +- 2.48
NGC 58822.1PN2004MNRAS.353..953T327.8+10.015:16:49.90-45:38:58.6015.6x12.9B-10.37410481123.51.98 +- 0.56
M 1-312.11PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G006.4+02.017:52:41.4-22:21:56.84
NGC 300 R142.13HII2016MNRAS.458.1866T00:54:43.42-37:43:09.3
M 1-742.14PN2005MNRAS.362..424W052.2-04.019:42:18.8015:09:08.245R6.82 +- 1.99
SMC N812.14HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T01:09:12.8-73:11:36.9
NGC 5952.18HII2009ApJ...700..654E01:33:34.230:41:38
IC 35682.2PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L123.6+34.512:33:06.8082:33:50.2917R-10.821110957.82.72 +- 0.77
M 2-272.2PN2007MNRAS.381..669W359.9-04.518:03:52.60-31:17:46.542.5S-12.210706.26 +- 1.84
M 2-332.2PN2007MNRAS.381..669W002.0-06.218:15:06.50-30:15:32.904.9E-11.66058.19 +- 2.36
M 3-292.2PN2007MNRAS.381..669W004.0-11.118:39:25.80-30:40:36.709.7x8.6E-11.62.259976.66 +- 1.91
NGC 23632.2HII2002ApJ...581..241E07:28:29.8369:11:32.80
NGC 32422.2PN2004MNRAS.353..953T261.0+32.010:24:46.10-18:38:32.2431.5x30.7B-9.79116982027.51.03 +- 0.29
NGC 65672.2PN2007MNRAS.381..669W011.7-00.618:13:45.10-19:04:33.677.2E-10.9310103818.4363.24 +- 0.94
SMC N66A2.24HII2017MNRAS.467.3759T00:59:14.3-72:11:02.8
IC 52172.26PN2005MNRAS.362..424W100.6-05.422:23:55.7050:58:00.446.6E-11.1712121917.5284.61 +- 1.30
H10132.29HII2009ApJ...700..654E14:03:32.254:21:10
Hen 2-732.29PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G296.3-03.011:48:38.2-65:08:37.323.3x2.5B
H 1-422.3PN2007MNRAS.381..669W357.2-04.517:57:25.20-33:35:42.945.8S-11.7612616.05 +- 1.73
M 2-62.3PN2007MNRAS.381..669W353.3+06.317:04:18.30-30:53:28.728E
M 3-152.3PN2013A%26A...558A.122G006.8+04.117:45:31.70-20:58:01.784.2B5.51 +- 1.69
NGC 68842.3PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L082.1+07.020:10:23.7046:27:39.536E-11.11985233.22 +- 0.92
SMC N662.3HII2003MNRAS.338..687T00:59:27.40-72:10:10.7
NGC 300 R22.34HII2016MNRAS.458.1866T00:54:16.28-37:34:34.9
30 Dor2.35HII2003MNRAS.338..687T05:38:42.40-69:06:03.36
H 1-502.37PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G358.7-05.218:03:53.5132:41:42.02
IC 41912.4PN2004MNRAS.353..953T304.5-04.813:08:47.30-67:38:37.685.3x4.5B-118567123.93 +- 1.11
M 1-302.4PN2013A%26A...558A.122G355.9-04.217:52:58.90-34:38:22.993.5E-11.771536.49 +- 2.02
NGC 31322.4PN2004MNRAS.353..953T272.1+12.310:07:01.80-40:26:11.1159.9x45.6B-10.454102114.7211.12 +- 0.32
NGC 67202.4PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L063.1+13.918:53:35.1033:01:45.0176E-10.0813165526.50.92 +- 0.26
M 2-312.42PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G006.0-03.618:13:16.0-25:30:04.97
NGC 68792.46PN2005MNRAS.362..424W057.2-08.920:10:26.7016:55:21.295R-11.58586821.57.00 +- 2.05
NGC 68332.47PN2005MNRAS.362..424W082.5+11.319:49:46.6048:57:40.100.5B-11.2594851317.85 +- 5.06
NGC 62102.5PN2005ApJS..157..371R043.1+37.716:44:29.5023:47:59.5716.2B-10.0963652135.52.05 +- 0.58
PB 82.57PN2009A%26A...496..139G292.4+04.111:33:17.84-57:06:14.86.5x6.5E
H 1-542.6PN2007MNRAS.381..669W002.1-04.218:07:07.20-29:13:06.354.8B-11.884368.17 +- 2.45
LMC N1412.6PN2004MNRAS.353..953T05:25:26.022-68:55:53.99
M 3-212.6PN2007MNRAS.381..669W355.1-06.918:02:32.30-36:39:10.942.8R-11.4285217.73 +- 2.30
NGC 31252.63HII2014MNRAS.443..624E10:06:33.6-29:56:08
NGC 54082.69HII2014MNRAS.443..624E14:03:15.5-41:22:24
NGC 68032.71PN2005MNRAS.362..424W046.4-04.119:31:16.5010:03:21.895.4x5.1E-11.1822149514.5204.59 +- 1.37
NGC 6543S2.74PN2005ApJS..157..371R096.4+29.917:58:33.4066:37:58.8025.5B-9.6119.5201.15 +- 0.32
M 1-602.75PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G019.7-04.518:43:38.1-13:44:48.62
M 1-332.77PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G013.1+04.117:58:58.8-15:32:14.784.8B
M 162.8HII2007ApJ...670..457G18:18:48.00-00:13:48.40
SMC N872.8PN2004MNRAS.353..953T01:21:10.69-73:14:34.8
H 1-402.88PN2018MNRAS.473.4476G359.7-02.617:55:36.1-30:33:32.081.4x1.4S
Cn 2-12.9PN2007MNRAS.381..669W356.2-04.417:54:33.00-34:22:20.863S-11.6395427.46 +- 2.16
H 1-502.9PN2007MNRAS.381..669W358.7-05.218:03:53.5132:41:42.02
NGC 68182.9PN2004MNRAS.353..953T025.8-17.919:43:57.70-14:09:11.6624.7x24.7E-10.481324527.6311.88 +- 0.53
IC 48462.91PN2005MNRAS.362..424W027.6-09.619:16:28.20-09:02:36.563B-11.34636913.17.13 +- 2.01
Sp 4-12.94PN2005MNRAS.362..424W068.7+14.819:00:26.5038:21:07.99B
Hu 1-12.97PN2005MNRAS.362..424W119.6-06.100:28:15.6055:57:54.726.3E5.91 +- 1.67
K 6482.99PN2015ApJS..217...22O065.0-27.321:29:59.4012:10:26.20
M 1-293PN2007MNRAS.381..669W359.1-01.717:50:18.00-30:34:54.917.6E-12.2716273.32 +- 1.02
M 1-323PN2013A%26A...558A.122G011.9+04.217:56:20.00-16:29:03.959.1x8.0E-12.23983.56 +- 1.08
NGC 6543S3PN2004MNRAS.351.1026W096.4+29.917:58:33.4066:37:58.8025.5B-9.6119.5201.15 +- 0.32
BoBn 13.05PN2010ApJ...723..658O108.4-76.100:37:16.03-13:42:58.62.2x1.5S
NGC 62103.1PN2004MNRAS.353.1251L043.1+37.716:44:29.5023:47:59.5716.2B-10.0963652135.52.05 +- 0.58
IC 3513.14PN2005MNRAS.362..424W159.0-15.103:47:33.0035:02:48.527E-11.42121230155.73 +- 1.62
IC 17473.2PN2005MNRAS.362..424W130.2+01.301:57:35.8063:19:18.1213E-11.497135227.53.08 +- 1.00
NGC 66203.2PN2007MNRAS.381..669W005.8-06.118:22:54.20-26:49:17.008R-11.73612446.31 +- 1.81
NGC 70263.36PN2005MNRAS.362..424W089.0+00.321:06:18.6047:51:07.8514B-10.93852.51.67 +- 0.48
NGC 70273.58PN2005ApJS..157..371R084.9-03.421:07:01.7042:14:09.4915.6x12.0B-10.1221.523.50.94 +- 0.27
IC 45933.6PN2005ApJS..157..371R025.3+40.816:11:44.5412:04:17.0615.3x14.7E
NGC 63023.6PN2004MNRAS.353..953T349.5+01.017:13:44.40-37:06:12.8956.1B-10.5524135480.64 +- 0.18
M 1-733.61PN2005MNRAS.362..424W051.9-03.819:41:09.3014:56:59.395B4.18 +- 1.27
Hb 43.7PN2013A%26A...558A.122G003.1+02.917:41:52.80-24:42:08.0611.1x6.8B-11.951444232.88 +- 0.86
Hu 2-14PN2005MNRAS.362..424W051.4+09.618:49:47.6020:50:39.442.6B4.18 +- 1.18
Mrk 12714.16HII2014MNRAS.443..624E10:56:09.106:10:22
M 3-344.23PN2005MNRAS.362..424W031.0-10.819:27:01.90-06:35:04.637.4x6.4E5.90 +- 1.69
M 3-74.4PN2007MNRAS.381..669W357.1+03.617:24:34.40-29:24:19.485.8S5.19 +- 1.53
M 2-365PN2001MNRAS.327..141L003.2-06.218:17:41.40-29:08:19.578.1R-11.2808
NGC 67205-10PN2001ApJ...558..145G063.1+13.918:53:35.1033:01:45.0176E-10.0813165526.50.92 +- 0.26
NGC 70095PN1995MNRAS.272..369L037.7-34.521:04:10.90-11:21:48.2428.0x22.0B-9.781842520.6201.26 +- 0.36
NGC 70095PN2013MNRAS.429.2791F037.7-34.521:04:10.90-11:21:48.2428.0x22.0B-9.781842520.6201.26 +- 0.36
H 1-415.1PN2007MNRAS.381..669W356.7-04.817:57:19.10-34:09:49.109.6E-11.78685.36 +- 1.56
DdDm 15.3PN2009ApJ...705..509O061.9+41.316:40:18.2038:42:19.910.6S17.38 +- 5.04
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Hf 2-283PNb2018MNRAS.480.4589W005.1-08.918:32:30.90-28:43:20.3921.7x21.7E-12.34.24 +- 1.22
Abell 5890PN2008MNRAS.383.1639W037.5-05.119:18:20.5001:46:59.6344.7x33.7E5.68 +- 1.78
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Abundance discrepancies in close binaries

In Wesson et al. (2018), we proposed that there is a threshold period of about 1.15 days, with only the shorter period binaries showing adfs >5, and longer periods binaries having adfs <5. This plot shows adf(O2+) against binary period for the 18 objects where both are measured, with an upper limit indicated for the Necklace Nebula. adf(O2+)=5 and P=1.15 d are indicated with horizontal and vertical dashed lines. Binary periods for MyCn18 and NGC 2392 have been published since Wesson et al. 2018, and both lie in the bottom right quadrant where we would have predicted them to, based on their low adf.

However, a binary period and adf were published for Sp 3 in August 2019, and these place it far from the other nebulae in the diagram, in a region of parameter space where it is currently unique.

Abundance discrepancy against binary period O2+ abundance discrepancy Binary period (days) 0.1 1 10 100 1 10 100

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Densities v. abundance discrepancies

In Wesson et al. (2018), we investigated the relations between adfs and densities. As measured by [Sii] lines, the highest adfs occur in the lowest density planetary nebulae, while in Hii regions, there is no relation. Densities measured from [Oii] lines are spuriously high in extreme-adf objects, due to recombination enhancing the line fluxes. This plot shows the [Sii] densities, with the points moving to indicate the [Oii] densities when you hover over it.

Electron density against abundance discrepancy O2+ abundance discrepancy Density (cm-3) 10 100 1000 10000 1 10 100

[save figure]