Supernova ejecta dust masses

This is a compilation of literature values for dust masses in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. The list is not yet complete but is intended to be all-inclusive, so if different authors infer different dust masses from the same data, multiple points will appear on the plot at the relevant epoch. Information about each value can be seen by hovering over points in the plot, and hovering will also indicate other data points for the same object from the same paper if there are any.

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Observed evolution:

Theoretical evolution:

Epoch (days) Dust mass (M) 1.0E-7 1.0E-6 1.0E-5 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000

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SupernovaEpochDust mass (M)Lower limitUpper limitTechniqueCommentsReference
1ASASSN-14jb330 d0.0001--SED2019A%26A...629A..57M
2Cas A330 y0.50.40.6SED2017MNRAS.465.3309D
3Cas A330 y0.990.91.02Emission line fluxes2021arXiv210312705N
4Cas A330 y1.1--Emission line profiles2017MNRAS.465.4044B
5Crab1070 y0.240.560.16SEDAssuming silicate dust2012ApJ...760...96G
6Crab1070 y0.110.10.12SEDAssuming carbon dust2012ApJ...760...96G
7Crab1070 y0.550.50.6SEDassuming mixed carbon/silicate dust2015ApJ...801..141O
8Crab1070 y0.220.180.27SEDassuming carbon dust2015ApJ...801..141O
9Crab1070 y-0.0190.13SED2013ApJ...774....8T
10E01022000 y0.014--SED2009ApJ...700..579R
11G54.1+0.31500 y0.3--SED2017ApJ...836..129T
12G54.1+0.31500 y0.490.080.9SED2018MNRAS.479.5101R
13Kes 75480 y-0.013-SED2012ApJ...745...46T
14SN1980K30 y0.210.120.3Emission line profiles2017MNRAS.465.4044B
15SN1987A615 d0.0010.00080.0012SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
16SN1987A615 d0.45--SED2015ApJ...810...75D
17SN1987A775 d0.45--SED2015ApJ...810...75D
18SN1987A714 d0.0002--Emission line profilesfrom [OI] 6300,63632016MNRAS.456.1269B
19SN1987A714 d5.5E-5--Emission line profilesfrom Hα2016MNRAS.456.1269B
20SN1987A775 d0.0020.00180.0022SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
21SN1987A806 d0.0004--Emission line profilesfrom [OI] 6300,63632016MNRAS.456.1269B
22SN1987A806 d9.0E-5--Emission line profilesfrom Hα2016MNRAS.456.1269B
23SN1987A1054 d0.00075--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
24SN1987A1153 d0.0030.0020.004SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
25SN1987A1478 d0.0011--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
26SN1987A1862 d0.0012--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
27SN1987A2211 d0.003--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
28SN1987A2875 d0.008--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
29SN1987A3500 d0.0135--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
30SN1987A3604 d0.017--Emission line profiles2016MNRAS.456.1269B
31SN1987A8515 d-0.40.7SED2011Sci...333.1258M
32SN1987A8515 d0.60.40.8SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
33SN1987A25 y-0.2-SED2014ApJ...782L...2I
34SN1987A9200 d0.80.61SED2015MNRAS.446.2089W
35SN1987A9200 d0.60.40.8SED2015ApJ...800...50M
36SN1993J16 y0.120.080.15Emission line profiles2017MNRAS.465.4044B
37SN1998S346 d-0.001-SED2004MNRAS.352..457P
38SN1999em510 d-0.0001-SED2003MNRAS.338..939E
39SN2003gd499 d0.0002--SEDAssuming smooth dust distribution2006Sci...313..196S
40SN2003gd499 d0.0017--SEDAssuming clumpy dust distribution2006Sci...313..196S
41SN2003gd499 d4.0E-5--SED2007ApJ...665..608M
42SN2003gd678 d0.0027--SEDAssuming smooth dust distribution2006Sci...313..196S
43SN2003gd678 d0.02--SEDAssuming clumpy dust distribution2006Sci...313..196S
44SN2004dj271 d2.0E-5--SEDmass assumes 0.05um grains. lower limit assumes MRN, upper limit assumes 0.1um grains2011A%26A...527A..61S
45SN2004dj866 d0.000260.00020.00032SEDmass assumes 0.05um grains. lower limit assumes MRN, upper limit assumes 0.1um grains2011A%26A...527A..61S
46SN2004dj1011 d0.000620.000480.00076SEDmass assumes 0.05um grains. lower limit assumes MRN, upper limit assumes 0.1um grains2011A%26A...527A..61S
47SN2004dj1241 d0.000360.000260.00042SEDmass assumes 0.05um grains. lower limit assumes MRN, upper limit assumes 0.1um grains2011A%26A...527A..61S
48SN2004et300 d4.0E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
49SN2004et360 d6.1E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
50SN2004et406 d6.1E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
51SN2004et464 d6.9E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
52SN2004et690 d9.9E-5--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
53SN2004et736 d0.00011--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
54SN2004et795 d0.00014--SED2009ApJ...704..306K
55SN2005ad194 d1.0E-5--SEDanalytical calculation2013A%26A...549A..79S
56SN2005ad364 d4.0E-6--SEDanalytical calculation2013A%26A...549A..79S
57SN2005af194 d0.0004--SED2013A%26A...549A..79S
58SN2005af576 d0.00018--SEDpure amorphous carbon model2013A%26A...549A..79S
59SN2005af576 d0.00011--SED65% silicates, 35% amorphous carbon model2013A%26A...549A..79S
60SN2005ip48 d1.585E-81.175e-71.000e-9Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
61SN2005ip58 d4.5E-52.0E-55.3E-5SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
62SN2005ip72 d2.884E-78.318e-72.291e-9Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
63SN2005ip99 d6.2E-52.6E-57.1E-5SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
64SN2005ip120 d3.09E-63.162e-51.259e-6Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
65SN2005ip169 d7.413E-66.918e-53.090e-6Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
66SN2005ip211 d8.3E-53.2E-59.3E-5SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
67SN2005ip413 d7.244E-62.951e-51.000e-6Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
68SN2005ip722 d0.0001887.2E-50.000209SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
69SN2005ip905 d0.0019052.455e-28.128e-5Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
70SN2005ip940 d0.0005--SED2010ApJ...725.1768F
71SN2005ip1565 d0.0005410.0002050.0006SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
72SN2005ip2242 d0.08711.585e+02.188e-2Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
73SN2005ip3099 d0.077621.585e+09.333e-3Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
74SN2005ip4075 d0.069181.585e+06.761e-3Emission line profiles2019MNRAS.485.5192B
75SN2006bc550 d0.002--SEDSmooth models give 4e-4Mo2012ApJ...753..109G
76SN2006jc200 d6.9E-56.4E-57.4E-5SED2.7+0.7-0.5e-3Mo of pre-existing dust also inferred2009ApJ...692..546S
77SN2006jd9 d0.0002880.0001020.000332SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
78SN2006jd51 d0.0001667.2E-50.000204SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
79SN2006jd99 d0.000166.7E-50.000193SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
80SN2006jd204 d0.000248.0E-50.000271SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
81SN2006jd753 d0.0008720.0002860.000984SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
82SN2006jd1638 d0.0004620.0001440.000514SEDMass assumes 0.1um grains, lower and upper limits assume 1.0um and 0.01um grains respectively2012ApJ...756..173S
83SN2007it944 d0.0001--SEDclumpy model. earlier epochs are assumed to have significant CSM contribution2011ApJ...731...47A
84SN2007it944 d4.6E-5--SEDsmooth model. earlier epochs are assumed to have significant CSM contribution2011ApJ...731...47A
85SN2007od300 d0.00017--SEDsmooth model2010ApJ...715..541A
86SN2007od300 d0.00025--SEDclumpy model2010ApJ...715..541A
87SN2007od455 d0.00019--SEDsmooth model2010ApJ...715..541A
88SN2007od455 d0.00042--SEDclumpy model2010ApJ...715..541A
89SN2007od667 d0.00018--SEDsmooth model2010ApJ...715..541A
90SN2007od667 d0.00042--SEDclumpy model2010ApJ...715..541A
91SN2010jl87 d0.00044--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
92SN2010jl254 d0.0049--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
93SN2010jl254 d0.0013--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
94SN2010jl464 d0.0007--SED2020ApJ...894..111B
95SN2010jl465 d0.0047--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
96SN2010jl465 d0.00088--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
97SN2010jl526 d0.00025--Emission line profiles2020ApJ...894..111B
98SN2010jl526 d0.0007--SED2020ApJ...894..111B
99SN2010jl550 d0.00080.000750.00085SED2013ApJ...776....5M
100SN2010jl621 d0.0065--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
101SN2010jl621 d0.0014--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
102SN2010jl844 d0.0095--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
103SN2010jl844 d0.0022--SEDassuming carbon dust2018ApJ...859...66S
104SN2010jl87 d0.0018--SEDassuming silicate dust2018ApJ...859...66S
105SN2010jl915 d0.002--Emission line profiles2020ApJ...894..111B
106SN2010jl996 d0.003--SED2020ApJ...894..111B
107SN2010jl1286 d0.005--Emission line profiles2020ApJ...894..111B
108SN2010jl1367 d0.01--SED2020ApJ...894..111B
109SN2011ja105 d1.9E-5--SEDClumpy model. Table 5 in the paper says 1.9e-4, text makes clear this is a typo.2016MNRAS.457.3241A
110SN2011ja486 d6.4E-5--SEDClumpy model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
111SN2011ja637 d3.8E-5--SEDClumpy model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
112SN2011ja857 d0.00064--SEDClumpy model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
113SN2011ja105 d1.1E-5--SEDSmooth model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
114SN2011ja486 d3.7E-5--SEDSmooth model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
115SN2011ja637 d2.7E-5--SEDSmooth model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
116SN2011ja857 d0.00045--SEDSmooth model2016MNRAS.457.3241A
117SN2014C1624 d4.0E-68.0E-62.0E-6SEDhot component2019ApJ...887...75T
118SN2014C1624 d0.00520.00590.0046SEDwarm component2019ApJ...887...75T
119SN2014dt320 d1.0E-5--SEDType Iax supernova2016ApJ...816L..13F
120SN2017eaw197 d7.0E-6--SEDassuming carbon dust2019ApJ...873..127T
121SN2017eaw197 d0.0001--SEDassuming silicate dust2019ApJ...873..127T
122SN2017eaw295 d1.0E-5--SEDassuming carbon dust2019ApJ...873..127T
123SN2017eaw295 d0.0001--SEDassuming silicate dust2019ApJ...873..127T
124SN2017eaw498 d1.0E-5--SEDassuming carbon dust2019ApJ...873..127T
125SN2017eaw498 d0.0003--SEDassuming silicate dust2019ApJ...873..127T
126SN2020oi63 d1.0E-5--SEDcould be echo2021ApJ...908..232R

Median values in epoch decades

Epoch range (days)Median dust mass (M)
1-100.000288
10-1006.2E-5
100-1,0000.000188
1,000-10,0000.0132
10,000-100,0000.21
100,000-1,000,0000.3